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Belajar Transformasi Sektor Air dan Sanitasi dari Aguas de Portugal
  2024-07-04 09:54:33    Dibaca : 980

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58/B-NUWSP/Juli/2024

 

Salah satu hal penting dari kegiatan Konferensi Tingkat Tinggi (KTT) World Water Forum ke-10 di Bali pada 18-24 Mei 2024 silam adalah sesi khusus yang diisi oleh Aguas de Portugal (AdP). Pada kesempatan itu dipaparkan transformasi sektor air dan sanitasi yang dilakukan Portugal sejak 1993. Presentasi tersebut dinilai relevan karena menurut Menteri PUPR Basuki Hadimuljono, pasokan air dan layanan sanitasi di Indonesia mirip seperti kondisi Portugal di masa lalu. Saat ini layanan sanitasi di Indonesia kurang dari 15%, dan pasokan air pun masih kurang dari 50%. (Kompas.com, 2024)

Menteri PUPR Basuki Hadimuljono mengajak pemda dan pengelola air minum untuk brainstorming reformasi kelembagaan ( institutional reform). Ini disampaikan pada special session World Water Forum ke-10 di Bali, Kamis (23/5/24). (Dok. Kementerian PUPR)

Gambar 1. Menteri PUPR Basuki Hadimuljono mengajak pemda dan pengelola air minum untuk brainstorming reformasi kelembagaan (institutional reform). Ini disampaikan pada special ​​​session ​​​​​World Water Forum ke-10 di Bali, Kamis (23/5/24). (Dok. Kementerian PUPR)​​​​​​​

Sementara itu, pemerintah menargetkan Indonesia mencapai masa kejayaan atau Indonesia Emas 2045, termasuk di sektor air. Untuk mengejar target Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) dan visi Indonesia Emas, Presiden Joko Widodo menerbitkan Instruksi Presiden No. 1 Tahun 2024 tentang Percepatan Penyediaan Air Minum dan Layanan Pengelolaan Air Limbah Domestik. (Kementerian PUPR, 2024)

Pada kesempatan tersebut Vice President AdP Antonio Ventura mengungkapkan, sebelumnya layanan air di Portugal tidak stabil, tidak efisien, dan tidak transparan. AdP sendiri adalah sebuah perusahaan milik negara (BUMN) yang didirikan pada 1993 dan bekerja secara komersial dalam mengoperasikan sektor air. Kini, AdP menyuplai 99% air minum aman dan 86% sanitasi di negara Portugal. Namun bagaimana sepak terjang AdP hingga mampu mencapai prestasi seperti saat ini?

Portugal merupakan sebuah negara dengan populasi berjumlah 10 juta jiwa, beriklim mediterania dengan pantai sebagai potensi pariwisatanya. Sayangnya, terdapat kesenjangan yang besar dari sisi demografi antara pedesaan dengan pesisir pantai. Begitu pula dengan flow regime (aliran yang mempengaruhi konfigurasi lapisan) dari tahun ke tahun. Sumber air Portugal sebagian besar berasal dari bendungan, mengingat daerah aliran sungai di Portugal banyak beririsan dengan Spanyol. Sementara itu 70% kebutuhan air digunakan untuk irigasi.

Gambar 2. Presentasi Aguas de Portugal tentang kondisi Portugal 30 tahun silam (Dok. Aguas de Portugal)

Gambar 2. Presentasi Aguas de Portugal tentang kondisi Portugal 30 tahun silam (Dok. Aguas de Portugal)

Pada 1986, Portugal menjadi bagian dari Uni Eropa atau European Union (EU)/Masyarakat Ekonomi Eropa (MEE) atau European Economic Community (EEC). Hingga 1992, Portugal hanya mengalami sedikit perbaikan di bidang air minum dan sanitasi. Kemudian, hibah dari EU diarahkan untuk solusi lokal dan terpisah, tapi tidak terkoordinasi secara nasional. Menurut Antonio Ventura, kala itu pemerintah kota hanya bertanggung jawab atas sistem air minum dan sanitasi, tapi kinerja dan kapasitas mereka untuk berinvestasi masih sangat terbatas. Hasilnya, meski 75% penduduk bisa mengakses air minum, aliran air tidak bisa diakses 24 jam. Selain itu, tidak sampai 50% menikmati air minum aman.

Akhirnya pada 1993, Portugal melakukan reformasi sektor legal, kelembagaan dengan skala manajemen profesional, dan organisasi untuk memperbaiki layanan air minum dan sanitasi. Reformasi ini penting dilakukan, guna menjamin pembangunan layanan air yang berkelanjutan. Perubahan besar-besaran dalam peraturan dan harmonisasi antarlembaga pun terjadi, dengan melibatkan partisipasi pemerintah pusat, pemerintah kota, perusahaan/korporasi berbadan hukum, serta sektor swasta. Salah satunya melahirkan model manajemen “Multimunicipal Systems” atau Sistem Multikota yang dikendalikan oleh negara melalui AdP dan seluruh pemerintah kota.

Gambar 3. Presentasi Aguas de Portugal tentang Kerangka Hukum dan Model Manajemen Baru (Dok. Aguas de Portugal)

Gambar 3. Presentasi Aguas de Portugal tentang Kerangka Hukum dan Model Manajemen Baru (Dok. Aguas de Portugal)

Di sistem tersebut diketahui, antara lain, semua PDAM kota menjadi penyedia layanan air utama yang dialirkan ke masing-masing kota melalui kontrak internal yang diberikan oleh pemerintah pusat. Kontrak ini mencakup rencana penanaman modal selama jangka waktu kontrak. Tarif full cost recovery (FCR) ditetapkan untuk jangka waktu lima tahun oleh pengambil kebijakan berdasarkan tarif dan rencana investasi yang disampaikan oleh PDAM. Tolok ukur keberhasilan dilakukan oleh Pemerintah Pusat dengan memantau indeks kinerja (KPI) PDAM setiap tahunnya.

Berdasarkan data indikator ekonomi dan keuangan utama per Desember 2022 diketahui prestasi AdP antara lain, diperoleh laba bersih sebesar 100,3 juta EURO, total aset 6,29 miliar EURO, investasi 237,8 juta EURO, layanan air minum aman 99,6%, pengolahan air limbah 93,4%, BUMD dengan sistem manajemen ramah lingkungan 100%, dan BUMD tersertifikasi manajemen berkualitas 100%.

Pelajaran yang didapatkan dalam hal ini adalah:

  1. Korporatisasi—proses pengubahan dan restrukturisasi dari aset negara, lembaga negara, atau lembaga kota/daerah menjadi korporasi atau badan usaha (Investopedia, 2021)—dinilai sangat penting untuk keberlanjutan layanan air minum.
  2. Cost Recovery (sebagai dasar penetapan tarif layanan) berkelanjutan adalah sebuah keharusan.
  3. Layanan air minum dan pengolahan air limbah sebaiknya dikelola oleh pihak yang sama, agar dapat memperoleh solusi pengelolaan air limbah berkelanjutan.
  4. Penilaian dengan menggunakan indikator (KPI) sangat penting demi transparansi pelaksanaan kegiatan.​​​​​​​
  5. Institutional Framework atau kerangka kelembagaan— Kerangka hukum dan kelembagaan merupakan konsep yang luas dan menyangkut fungsi pemerintah, perusahaan swasta, yurisdiksi politik, sistem peradilan, badan legislatif, dan badan pengatur (ScienceDirect, 2022)—yang tegas diperlukan untuk perubahan sektor bersangkutan menjadi lebih baik.

Mengenai keberhasilan Portugal di bidang pelayanan air minum, sanitasi, dan pengelolaan limbah padat juga dijelaskan Executive Board Member Water and Waste Services Regulation Authority (ERSAR) Portugal Ana Teresa Albuquerque dalam tulisannya di Smart Water Magazine Portugal pada 2020 silam. Menurutnya, keberhasilan Portugal dalam sektor air minum dan sanitasi terwujud berkat komitmen politik pemerintah, penelaahan dan pelaksanaan yang tepat sasaran, diiringi kebijakan publik yang menyeluruh, terintegrasi dan stabil, juga keterlibatan seluruh pemangku kepentingan, serta ketersediaan dana. (Smartwatermagazine.com)

Gambar 4. Sesi khusus dalam World Water Forum ke-10 dengan panelis dari Kementerian PUPR, Bank Dunia, Aguas de Portugal (Dok. RMAC-2 NUWSP)

Gambar 4. Sesi khusus dalam World Water Forum ke-10 dengan panelis dari Kementerian PUPR, Bank Dunia, Aguas de Portugal (Dok. RMAC-2 NUWSP) 

 

Bagaimana kaitan prestasi AdP tersebut dengan NUWSP?

Dari AdP, Tim NUWSP dapat mengambil pelajaran sebagai berikut:

Pertama, Sistem Manajemen Pengelolaan Pelayaan Perkotaan secara Terintegrasi: Pemegang paten dalam integrasi penyediaan air minum, sanitasi, dan pengelolaan persampahan (Technical Model – Aquamod) sebagai penjamin kualitas operasional dan keberlanjutan pendanaan (Financial Sustainability)

Kedua, Pengeloaan Informasi melalui Sistem Informasi Manajemen (SIM): Salah satu kunci keberhasilan AdP dalam penyelenggaraan operasional dalam lintas batas administrasi sekitar 220 municipalities (setara kabupaten/kota).

Ketiga, Pengelolaan Aset Terintegrasi: Implementasi kebijakan manajemen, pengelolaan aset dan manajemen risiko secara maksimal dengan mengedepankan efisiensi biaya untuk memastikan keberlanjutan dengan pelayanan tariff air yang terjangkau.

Keempat, Tailor-Made Solution: Penyesuaian pengelolaan air minum, sanitasi dan persampahan yang cenderung sulit untuk onefit-for-all terutama berkaitan geomorfologi, demografi, kondisi lingkungan, dan kondisi sosial. Contoh Small-Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant (SWWTP) disiapkan dan dibangun untuk memberikan layanan di kawasan perdesaan/remote dan untuk perkotaan disiapkan, dibangun dikelola fasilitas/aset skala besar.

Kelima, Pendekatan Open Doors: Ini menjadi salah satu pendekatan yang baik untuk menjaring kolaborasi dengan berbagai stakeholder.

Dalam Rapat Koordinasi Tindak Lanjut Acara 10th World Water Forum di Kementerian PUPR pada Rabu, 19 Juni 2024 didapatkan hasil, antara lain, perlu dilakukan transformasi kelembagaan SPAM; roadmap transformasi kelembagaan SPAM yang dimulai di Provinsi Bali; initial framework untuk transformasi kelembagaan SPAM di Indonesia;

Transformasi kelembagaan dilakukan mulai dari perubahan kewenangan penetapan tarif (Permendagri No. 21/2020, perubahan atas Permendagri No. 71/2016) yang didelegasikan kepada pemerintah provinsi untuk memberikan tarif referensi dan ditetapkan oleh wali kota/bupati atas usulan BP dan BUMD AM. Sekarang semua menjadi penetapan oleh pemerintah pusat, yaitu: dewan SDA Nasional sebagai regulator memberikan masukan kepada Menteri PUPR; penetapan tarif nasional air minum oleh SK Menteri PUPR; BUMN melaksanakan tarif nasional air minum; BUMN melaksanakan penyelenggaraan SPAM secara nasional, sejalan dengan penetapan air minum sebagai kegiatan Strategis Nasional.

Tujuan transformasi kelembagaan adalah mengeliminasi isu kepentingan politik, percepatan 100% air minum layak, memastikan besaran tarif yang diterapkan kepada pelanggan adalah tarif yang menjamin pemenuhan 3K (Kuantitas, Kualitas, dan Kontinuitas), full cost recovery (FCR) dan equity (keadilan).

Semoga Indonesia mampu memenuhi cita-cita Indonesia Emas 2045 dengan tersedianya 100% layanan air minum dan layanan pengelolaan air limbah domestik bagi seluruh masyarakat Indonesia.

Referensi:

  1. Kompas.com (2024): Air dan Sanitasi Indonesia Dinilai Mirip Portugal 30 Tahun Lalu, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://lestari.kompas.com/read/2024/05/24/122440386/air-dan-sanitasi-indonesia-dinilai-mirip-portugal-30-tahun-lalu
  2. Kementerian PUPR (2024): Gapai Indonesia Emas 2045 Sektor Air, Menteri Basuki: Kuncinya Reformasi Kelembagaan, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://pu.go.id/berita/gapai-indonesia-emas-2045-sektor-air-menteri-basuki-kuncinya-reformasi-kelembagaan
  3. Science Direct (2022): Institutional Framework, from “Sustainable Resource Recovery and Zero Waste Approaches”, 2019, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/institutional-framework#:~:text=Legal%20and%20institutional%20framework%20is,legislative%20bodies%2C%20and%20regulatory%20agencies.
  4. Investopedia (2021): What is Corporization?, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/coporatization.asp#:~:text=What%20Is%20Corporatization%3F,directors%2C%20management%2C%20and%20shareholders.
  5. Smart Water Magazine (2020): Portuguese experience on the aggregation of water supply, sanitation and solid waste utilities, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://smartwatermagazine.com/blogs/ana-teresa-albuquerque/portuguese-experience-aggregation-water-supply-sanitation-and-solid
  6. Catatan Notulensi Koordinasi Tindak Lanjut Acara World Water Forum 10th antara Rentek Direktorat Air Minum Kementerian PUPR dengan RMAC NUWSP, 19 Juni 2024.

Kredit Foto:

  1. Dokumentasi RMAC-2 NUWSP (2024)
  2. Kompas.com (2024): Air dan Sanitasi Indonesia Dinilai Mirip Portugal 30 Tahun Lalu, diperoleh melalui situs internet: ​​​​​​​https://lestari.kompas.com/read/2024/05/24/122440386/air-dan-sanitasi-indonesia-dinilai-mirip-portugal-30-tahun-lalu
  3. Ventura, Antonio. (2024), Aguas de Portugal: Transforming Portugal's Water Sector, Special Session on The 10th World Water Forum, Bali, 2024

Ditulis oleh:

Nina Firstavina, S.E.

#AirMinum #WaterSupply #AguasdePortugal #WorldWaterForum #WorldWaterCouncil #10thWWF2024 #Bali #WaterSanitation #Watsan


Lesson Learned: Water and Sanitation Sector Transformation of Aguas de Portugal

Figure 1. PUPR Minister Basuki Hadimuljono invites regional governments and drinking water managers to brainstorm institutional reform. This was conveyed at the 10th World Water Forum special session in Bali, Thursday (23/5/24). (Doc. Ministry of Public Works and Housing)

Figure 1. PUPR Minister Basuki Hadimuljono invites regional governments and drinking water managers to brainstorm institutional reform. ​​​​​​​This was conveyed at the 10th World Water Forum special session in Bali, Thursday (23/5/24). (Doc. Ministry of Public Works and Housing)

 

One of the important things from the 10th World Water Forum Summit in Bali on 18-24 May 2024 was a special session presented by Aguas de Portugal (AdP). On that occasion, the transformation of the water and sanitation sector carried out by Portugal since 1993 was explained. This presentation was considered relevant because according to PUPR Minister Basuki Hadimuljono, water supply and sanitation services in Indonesia were similar to conditions in Portugal in the past. Currently sanitation services in Indonesia are less than 15%, and water supply is still less than 50%. (Kompas.com, 2024)

Meanwhile, the government is targeting Indonesia to achieve Golden Indonesia 2045, including in the water sector. To pursue the Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) target and the vision of a Golden Indonesia, President Joko Widodo issued Presidential Instruction No. 1 of 2024 concerning the Acceleration of Drinking Water Supply and Domestic Waste Water Management Services. (Ministry of Public Works and Housing, 2024)

On the occasion, AdP Vice President Antonio Ventura said that previously water services in Portugal were unstable, inefficient, and not transparent. AdP itself is a state-owned company which was founded in 1993 and works commercially in operating the water sector. Today, AdP supplies 99% of the safe drinking water and 86% of the sanitation in Portugal. But how did AdP work to be able to achieve the achievements it has today?

Portugal is a country with a population of 10 million people, with a Mediterranean climate with beaches as tourism potential. Unfortunately, there is a large gap in terms of demographics between rural areas and the coast. Likewise with the flow regime (flow that influences layer configuration) from year to year. Most of Portugal's water sources come from dams, considering that many river basins in Portugal intersect with Spain. Meanwhile, 70% of water needs are used for irrigation.

Figure 2. Aguas de Portugal presentation about the condition of Portugal 30 years ago (Doc. Aguas de Portugal)

Figure 2. Aguas de Portugal presentation about the condition of Portugal 30 years ago (Doc. Aguas de Portugal)

 

In 1986, Portugal became part of the European Union (EU)/European Economic Community (EEC). Until 1992, Portugal had experienced little improvement in drinking water and sanitation. Later, EU grants were directed towards local and separated solutions, but were not nationally coordinated. According to Antonio Ventura, at that time the city government was only responsible for drinking water and sanitation systems, but their performance and capacity to invest were still very limited. As a result, even though 75% of the population can access drinking water, the water supply cannot be accessed 24 hours a day. Apart from that, less than 50% enjoy safe drinking water.

Finally, in 1993, Portugal carried out legal sector, institutional and professional management and organizational reforms to improve drinking water and sanitation services. This reform is important to ensure sustainable development of water services. Massive changes in regulations and harmonization between institutions also occurred, involving the participation of the central government, city governments, companies/corporations with legal entities, and the private sector. One of them gave birth to the "Multimunicipal Systems" management model which is controlled by the state through AdP and all city governments.

Figure 3. Aguas de Portugal Presentation on Legal Framework and New Management Model (Doc. Aguas de Portugal)

Figure 3. Aguas de Portugal Presentation on Legal Framework and New Management Model (Doc. Aguas de Portugal))

 

In this system, it is known, among other things, that all city PDAMs are the main water service providers which are supplied to each city through internal contracts awarded by the central government. This contract includes a capital investment plan during the term of the contract. The full cost recovery (FCR) tariff is determined for a period of five years by policy makers based on the tariff and investment plans submitted by PDAM. The benchmark for success is carried out by the Central Government by monitoring the PDAM performance index (KPI) every year.

Based on data on key economic and financial indicators as of December 2022, it is known that AdP's achievements include, net profit of 100.3 million EURO, total assets of 6.29 billion EURO, investment of 237.8 million EURO, safe drinking water service of 99.6%, waste water treatment 93.4%, BUMD with a 100% environmentally friendly management system, and BUMD with 100% quality management certification.

The lessons learned in this case are:

  1. Corporatization—the process of changing and restructuring state assets, state institutions, or city/regional institutions into corporations or business entities (Investopedia, 2021)—is considered very important for the sustainability of drinking water services.
  2. Sustainable Cost Recovery (as the basis for determining service rates) is a must.
  3. Drinking water and waste water treatment services should be managed by the same party, in order to obtain sustainable waste water management solutions.
  4. Assessment using indicators (KPI) is very important for transparency in the implementation of activities.
  5. Institutional Framework or institutional framework—The legal and institutional framework is a broad concept and concerns the functions of government, private companies, political jurisdictions, the judicial system, legislative bodies, and regulatory bodies (Science Direct, 2022)—which is clearly needed for changes in the sector concerned to become better.

Regarding Portugal's success in the field of drinking water services, sanitation and solid waste management, Ana Teresa Albuquerque, Executive Board Member of the Water and Waste Services Regulation Authority (ERSAR) of Portugal, explained in her article in Smart Water Magazine Portugal in 2020. According to him, Portugal's success in the drinking water and sanitation sector was realized thanks to the government's political commitment, targeted research and implementation, accompanied by comprehensive, integrated and stable public policies, as well as the involvement of all stakeholders, and the availability of funds. (smartwatermagazine.com)

Figure 4. Special session at the 10th World Water Forum with panelists from the Ministry of PUPR, World Bank, Aguas de Portugal (Doc. RMAC-2 NUWSP)

Figure 4. Special session at the 10th World Water Forum with panelists from the Ministry of PUPR, World Bank, Aguas de Portugal (Doc. RMAC-2 NUWSP)

 

How does AdP's achievement relate to NUWSP?

From AdP, the NUWSP Team can take the following lessons:

First, Integrated Urban Services Management System: Patent holder in the integration of drinking water supply, sanitation and waste management (Technical Model – Aquamod) as a guarantor of operational quality and financial sustainability (Financial Sustainability)

Second, Information Management through Management Information Systems (SIM): One of the keys to AdP's success in carrying out operations across administrative boundaries in around 220 municipalities (equivalent to districts/cities).

Third, Integrated Asset Management: Maximum implementation of management policies, asset management and risk management by prioritizing cost efficiency to ensure sustainability with affordable water tariff services.

Fourth, Tailor-Made Solution: Adjustment of drinking water, sanitation and waste management which tends to be difficult for one-fit-for-all, especially regarding geomorphology, demographics, environmental conditions and social conditions. For example, a Small-Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant (SWWTP) is prepared and built to provide services in rural/remote areas and for urban areas it is prepared, built and managed by large-scale facilities/assets.

Fifth, Open Doors Approach: This is a good approach to foster collaboration with various stakeholders.

In the Coordination Meeting for the Follow-up Event of the 10th World Water Forum at the PUPR Ministry on Wednesday, June 19 2024, the results obtained included, among other things, the need to carry out institutional transformation of SPAM; SPAM institutional transformation roadmap starting in Bali Province; initial framework for institutional transformation of SPAM in Indonesia;

Institutional transformation was carried out starting from changes in the authority to set tariffs (Permendagri No. 21/2020, amendment to Permendagri No. 71/2016) which was delegated to the provincial government to provide reference rates and determined by the mayor/regent based on the proposal of BP and BUMD AM. Now everything is determined by the central government, namely: the National Natural Resources Council as the regulator provides input to the Minister of PUPR; determination of national drinking water tariffs by PUPR Ministerial Decree; BUMN implements national drinking water tariffs; BUMN implements SPAM nationally, in line with the designation of drinking water as a National Strategic activity.

The aim of institutional transformation is to eliminate issues of political interests, accelerate 100% adequate drinking water, ensure that the tariff applied to customers is a tariff that guarantees the fulfillment of 3K (Quantity, Quality and Continuity), full cost recovery (FCR) and equity (fairness).

Hopefully Indonesia will be able to fulfill the ideals of a Golden Indonesia 2045 by providing 100% drinking water services and domestic waste water management services for all Indonesian people.

References:

  1. Kompas.com (2024): Air dan Sanitasi Indonesia Dinilai Mirip Portugal 30 Tahun Lalu, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://lestari.kompas.com/read/2024/05/24/122440386/air-dan-sanitasi-indonesia-dinilai-mirip-portugal-30-tahun-lalu
  2. Kementerian PUPR (2024): Gapai Indonesia Emas 2045 Sektor Air, Menteri Basuki: Kuncinya Reformasi Kelembagaan, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://pu.go.id/berita/gapai-indonesia-emas-2045-sektor-air-menteri-basuki-kuncinya-reformasi-kelembagaan
  3. Science Direct (2022): Institutional Framework, from “Sustainable Resource Recovery and Zero Waste Approaches”, 2019, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/institutional-framework#:~:text=Legal%20and%20institutional%20framework%20is,legislative%20bodies%2C%20and%20regulatory%20agencies.
  4. Investopedia (2021): What is Corporization?, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/coporatization.asp#:~:text=What%20Is%20Corporatization%3F,directors%2C%20management%2C%20and%20shareholders.
  5. Smart Water Magazine (2020): Portuguese experience on the aggregation of water supply, sanitation and solid waste utilities, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://smartwatermagazine.com/blogs/ana-teresa-albuquerque/portuguese-experience-aggregation-water-supply-sanitation-and-solid
  6. Catatan Notulensi Koordinasi Tindak Lanjut Acara World Water Forum 10th antara Rentek Direktorat Air Minum Kementerian PUPR dengan RMAC NUWSP, 19 Juni 2024.

Photo Credits:

  1. Dokumentasi RMAC-2 NUWSP (2024)
  2. Kompas.com (2024): Air dan Sanitasi Indonesia Dinilai Mirip Portugal 30 Tahun Lalu, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://lestari.kompas.com/read/2024/05/24/122440386/air-dan-sanitasi-indonesia-dinilai-mirip-portugal-30-tahun-lalu
  3. Ventura, Antonio. (2024), Aguas de Portugal: Transforming Portugal's Water Sector, Special Session on The 10th World Water Forum, Bali, 2024

Written and Edited by:

Nina Firstavina, S.E.

#DrinkingWater #WaterSupply #AguasdePortugal #WorldWaterForum #WorldWaterCouncil #10thWWF2024 #Bali #WaterSanitation

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